Tuesday, June 9, 2020
The main objective of this research proposal is to analyse how the entrepreneurial activity of family businesses continue over generations. The transfer of vision, reason and the extent to which it converts into entrepreneurship across different generations of the family business area will be critically analysed. Research Questions Rationale Many articles have identified few issues that come up when a business is given from the owner to its next generation. This research proposal will examine the background of developing family research and project found research about succession. The continuation of innovation and entrepreneurial behaviour from one generation to the next has been interpreted as entrepreneurial succession. It is necessary to perform further research about the management and strategic planning process of entrepreneurial succession. Fletcher observed that there is an underdeveloped important research area about the overlap and bond of entrepreneurship in family businesses. It can be demonstrated by a founder transferring his/her goal to the next generation through the process of succession, keeping in mind the successors primary vision for the betterment of the business. Hoy and Verser stressed to perform further research on members of the family receiving the vision of the founder. As outlined ear lier, despite having literature about succession issues available, the integration between entrepreneurship and family business literature is lacking. Family operations are known to be unique and feature succession processes. According to the studies of Davis, there is a certain positive moving force family businesses possess towards entrepreneurial activities. However, stability of the enterprise and perpetuity could possibly result in expansion and development of new economic sustained investment goals. With further research, discussions and analysis, family business will be strengthened. Questions This research gives a clear understanding of the relationship between generational entrepreneurship and the link with family businesses. It shall be expressed on theoretically as well as empirically. The primary reason to observe family businesses is because majority of businesses these days are owned by families. The following questions have come across due to the obvious breach in family business literature. What guarantee does a family business have that entrepreneurial activity shall continue over generations? Are the current leaders threatened about the upcoming generations being more entrepreneurial? Is there a possibility to learn from the positive experiences demonstrated in family businesses through their succession process? The above questions are all linked towards the succession inquiry of family business.it focuses on the importance, purpose and the vision of entrepreneurship. The last question focuses on how an individual can learn about the process of suc cession, problems involved, issues concerned in family businesses. It hardly emphasises on appreciating the family business positive aspects. Literature Review The accustomed influences of ambitious businesses absorb the action of an individual or a family that accept an ambition and usually acquire agnate values. For a family business, the literature demonstrates that values ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¹ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¹are fundamentally agnate and may be less of an obstacle to the construction of a team of people with altered ideals. However, the access of the founder may actuate how much they are willing to permit outsiders to participate in the business, while Cowling and Westhead (1998) argue that there could be a delay in family businesses if the administration of the family is reluctant to raiseÃâÃ alien funds due to the fear of losing family control. Although there are abounding positives in accepting the business of your family, there is an affirmation of threats to the model. Lansberg (1999) expresses an accepted affair to be dreams not actuality coinciding amid spouses, ancestors and added members of the family. This can advance to acute animosity that can balloon to the apparent and present as resentment, argument and abysmal regrets. The statistics of ownership for the intergenerational family businesses also possess threats. According to Smyrnios Dana (2007), 3/4th of businesses investigated are usually family businesses with the greater part being the first generation, further on halving to the second and third generation. This demonstrates that there is a reduction in family intergenerational involvement. This pathetic agenda is of great concern to family businesses, and in aspect black accustomed that the capital blackmail to the business may be the ancestors members. Davis can be accustomed as the first to bring forward the succession of entrepreneurship. He considers the entrepreneur as an important being who not alone can innovate and handle risks, but observes that the anew formed alignment is successfully functioning where the administration action can be given to others.it is without further doubt, He honed in the family business to research the arising issues of business succession when he saw the family as the most stabilized yet standard unit of social alignment in traditional society. It is this aggregate of family business, succession and entrepreneurship that lead us to the connection of this study. One of the abounding problems of a business is to recreate their advantage over competitors to overcome delay or disappearance. The entrepreneurship relationship with family business turns out to be amusing when observed in the ambience of a succession process. Keeping the ambitious spirit beyond generations is a main concern. The vision and entrepreneurship turn out to be alike based on the artistic and innovative aspects of each.as observed by Schwass, the preparation of the next-generation leaders have to be adjusted as a way of thinking and a goal that is implemented over a period of time.ÃâÃ The reason being familie s increase quickly, boosting up the number of owners and stakeholders and altering market conditions need continuous adjustment and renewal. The vision of the business should be developed, implemented and completely altered by generations that have been/are successive to bring about growth and provide the business with the sense of ownership. The future leaders should be viewed as powerful individuals and recognized as entrepreneurs for the betterment of the family business growth. Schwass divided the family business into three categories. The family business that is transitory would be the first. This category of family business fades off early in the second generation. A Mere example of this type of family business is a business that does not have the ephemeral from a single business to a collective family business. Basically a business that does not have a proper value based vision. The next category of family business would be the type of business that goes on for generations over generations but has to go through delay or no growth. This is known as preserving or maintaining family business. Usually these types of business occur in farms. The category that is the most appropriate to this proposal research would be the entrepreneurial business. Unlike the above ancestors businesses, the ambitious family business has added complication due to a substantive view that family associates gain certain benefits by preserving the business together. This type of family business is a solution to the type of people who consider there is no future for their type of family business. Entrepreneurship abstract focuses on the start-up of the business and tends to avoid the hypothesis that the administrator accordingly goes through retirement and needs to give the business to a successor. It is necessary in the abstract review for an understanding of circuitous and activating attributes of an entrepreneurial succession in family business. It is also necessary to underst and the family changes, founder changes, and company changes over time. Methodology This section can be subdivided into three sections, philosophical, methodical, and the research contribution. The first part I am going to analyse would be the philosophical. This research will be philosophically interpretive. There has been an access in the social sciences for qualitative analysis but under the research of entrepreneurship it has been represented below the mark according to Hindle. A qualitative access is applicable to entrepreneurship as well as family businesses at a level of methodology. Family business analysis can also be related to this. There is a necessity to utilize qualitative methods to a greater extent in the analysis of entrepreneurship. MacMillan (1988) performed a review which exhibited that in the analysis of entrepreneurship, the qualitative methods were lacking. The apathetic advance in analysis has been pretty disappointing as it addresses problems of casualty to entrepreneurship. The challenges in the future and the research of the model use d in the analysis of entrepreneurship will be methodology which serves to be explanatory, driven theoretically, and multiple methods utilization. Usually in the history of methodology analysis, surveys, interviews, descriptive, case studies, etc. were recommended. The perspectives of interpretation are highlighted through qualitative analysis as the knowledge to borrow from various disciplines. A qualitative researcher is given many added analogies; they are referred to as filmmakers, manufacturer of blankets or an individual who gathers images into a collage. On the other hand, Quantitative research dont have a subjective approach, they tend to have more of an objective approach. It carries the view of figures, reality and measurements in a positive manner.it can also be said that few of the objectivity have a possibility to be presumed when analysed qualitatively, although there is a tendency to be more indulged by the researcher on the subject, resulting into the objectivit y lacking.an inquiry that is interpretive in nature is required for a sustainable process like succession in entrepreneurship. It exposes a certain depth.as mentioned earlier, the need to borrow from various disciplines needs to be revealed as it is overlapping and intersecting.eg. Business run by family overlapping and intersecting entrepreneurship, family businesses clashing with succession issues, and most of all entrepreneurship and succession. The analysis in which the research will be conducted is an important part to be considered. As stated above, clearly there is evidence of problems, issues, difficulties, conflicts, etc. in businesses run by families from the literature and also suggested through the tradition that is being analysed, rather than investigations into what is performing well. This in return has resulted into the inquiry which is appreciative in nature. This is a good type of inquiry to choose because it evaluates the firm in a future minded way. According to Whitney Stavros, It is assumed that each firm has its strengthsÃâÃ and sections that function well, and that through this type of research, positivity can be created in the firm. Further on, discussions shall be held regarding the strategies that are utilized in the inquiry. Interviews are considered as a crucial source to abstract information of such sort. There are two types of tasks that are a must to carry out in the process of an interview according to Yin.The first type would be to chase a band of inquiry, which would be an inquiry that is appreciative. The second type would be to ask real questions in anÃâÃ impartial manner which is necessary for the research. The interview questions be open and encourage debate unsolicited.one of the advantages of collection of data through the utilization of interviews is that it concentrates mainly on the topic concerned and is insightful. However, the disadvantage of using interviews as a mode of data collection is that i f the questions concerned are not well framed, there is a possibility of it being inaccurate due to inadequate specification or artlessly the interviewer apprehends exactly what the interviewee says. Alongside, Historical data shall additionally be collected by the process, especially to award out the business and its founder history. Potential successors or founders are the main people the interviews are proposed towards. It serves as the studies main contribution. The contributions that tend to be practical include comprehending the system of a family business that is entrepreneurial in nature. Detailed research and recommendations performed explaining the succession overlap, entrepreneurship and family businesses. Also it provides a body of framework for the family business. Ethical issues Interviews are very useful for the process of collecting data despite there being a disadvantage when it comes to the inaccuracy and researchers prejudice due to poor retrieval. Interv iews have a similar way of consent just like the focus groups, but there is an altered dynamic when the process if facilitated.it will be a formal consent which shall be performed through an agreement that is written in form. This written consent agreement shall identify the extent and limitations to interview these people. Audio as well as video recording shall be performed of the participants, which consent shall be taken. The family business analysis shall be divided into four categories. The first would be the consent that is informative. This type of consent involves the voluntary participants agreeing to have the information completely open and in full. The second consent would be the way information is extracted from the participants; under no circumstance should it be gathered by means of deception or any sort of misrepresentation. The third category would be the respect for confidential matters and the uphold of privacy. Although there is a slight hitch to this; Privacy pro tection would be pointless if there is no accordance on what is private and what is accessible. The last category would be the necessity to have a certain assurance that the information being provided is accurate and has not been omitted, fabricated, or any of the materials are fraud. These four categories are applicable to data collection and observation techniques as well. A good example would be observation performed on the site with no script, it results in information being interpretive and it solely relies on information being gathered through regular note taking. In such a situation, accuracy can be a drawback as there is no immediate note of real time circumstances. Referencing Astrachan, J. H., Shanker, M. C. (2003). Family businesses contribution to the U.S. economy: A closer look. Family Business Review, 16(3), 211. Brockhaus, R. H. (1994). Entrepreneurship and family business research: Comparisons, critique, and lessons. Entrepreneurship: Theory Practice, 19(1), 14. Christians, C. G. (2005). Ethics and politics in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 131-164). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cohen, L., Manion, L., Morrison, K. (2001). Research methods in education (5th ed.). New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Collingwood, R. G. (1976). Essays in the philosophy of essays. Austin: University of Texas Press. Cooperrider, D. L., Whitney, D., Stavros, J. M. (2003). Appreciative Inquiry Handbook: The first in a series of AI workbooks for leaders of change. Bedford Heights: Lakeshore Publishers. Davis, S. M. (1968). Entrepreneurial succession. Administrati ve Science Quarterly, 13(3),15. Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. S. (2005a). Introduction. In N. K. Denzin Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.),The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 1-32). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2005b). The Sage handbook of qualitative research(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Dyer, W. G., Wilkins, A. L. (1991). Better stories, not better constructs, to generate better theory: A rejoiner to Eisenhardt. Academy of Management Review, p. 613, Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1991). Better stories and better constructs: The case for rigor and comparative logic. Academy of Management Review, 16(3), 620. Fletcher, D. (2004). Organisational (re)emergance and entrepreneurial development in a second-generation family firm. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour Research, 10(1/2), 34-48. Handler, W. C. (1994). Succession in Family Business: A Review of the Research Family Business Review, 7(2), 25. Hindle, K. (2004). Choosing qualitative methods for entrepreneurial cognition research: A canonical development approach. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(6), 575- 607. Hoy, F., Verser, T. G. (1994). Emerging business, emerging field: entrepreneurship and the family firm. Entrepreneurship: Theory Practice, 19(1), 15. Kamberelis, G., Dimitriadis, G. (2005). The Sage handbook of qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), (3rd ed., pp. 887-907). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (1993). The dynamics of family controlled firms: The good and the bad news. Organizational Dynamics, 21(3), 59-71. Lansberg, I. (1999). Succeeding Generations: Realizing the dream of families in business.Boston: Harvard. Low, M. B., MacMillan, I. C. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges. Journal of Management, 14(2), 139- 161. Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Miles, M., Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Richardson, L. (1998). Writing: A method of inquiry. In N. Denzin Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials (pp. 354-371). Thousand Oaks:Sage. Schwass, J. (2005). Wise growth strategies in leading family businesses. Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan. Stake, R. (1995). Art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Weick, K. (1995a). Sensemaking in organisations. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Weick, K. (1995b). What theory is not, theorizing is. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3), 385-390. Westhead, P., Cowling, M. (1998). Family firm research: The need for a methodological rethink. Entrepreneurship: Theory Practice, 23(1), 31-56. Woodfield, P. J. (2008, 8 February). Intergenerational entrepreneurship in family b usiness. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Scenario The designed database is used to record the births of all premature babies in a Hospital. Created database consists of four tables which are also referred as the dimensions of the database, and these tables are Patient, Duration, Doctor and Baby. Each dimension will consist of at least 5 attributes. With the use of this database Doctors are able to keep track of individual babiesÃ¢â¬â¢ records and analyse different patterns such as how long a premature baby does needs medical attention and in average how many babies are admitted to this ward annually. ________________________________________ Objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢ To list the average time scale baby would be in the hospital Ã¢â¬ ¢ To list the average gender of babies recovers quickly Ã¢â¬ ¢ To list theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦SQL Queries Patient Table The SQL code is written to present all patients surnames within the database, and the above screenshot shows the SQL code and the results from the query. Baby Table The SQL code is written to provide all babies names along with their surname, and the above screenshot shows the SQL code and the results from the query. Doctor Table The SQL code is written to provide all Doctors names within the database along with their surname, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve customised this code so the names are sorted in alphabetical order and the above screenshot shows the SQL code and the results from the query. Duration Table This is simple SQL query which is used to present records from a specific table. The above screenshot shows the SQL code and the results from Duration table. Average number of survival As part of my objectives I needed find an average of number of babies whom survived from the records of the database, order to that I used the average function on SQL to run a query showing how many babies have survived from the 10 records. Number of babies survived I also stated in my objective that I would use COUNT function on my database therefore I used the table containing babiesÃ¢â¬â¢ records to write SQL function that will run and count how many babies have survived from the 10 records. Multi Dimension Array Array 1 Array 2 Task 2 Mining association rules
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
MENTAL ILLNESS/DISORDERS A mental illness or disorder is a medical condition that can alter a personÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions, thoughts, mood, and actions, sometimes causing the person difficulty relating to others and daily functioning. (Ã¢â¬Å"Mental Health Conditions.Ã¢â¬ ) It is a condition that keeps the person from coping with their everyday lives if it is not addressed and properly treated. Mental illness is a sickness of the mind that may involve a mental breakdown so serious that the patient must have special care or in some cases be admitted to a mental hospital. Mentally ill people are sick, just as people suffering from sore throats or heart disease are sick. Mental illnesses include depression, bipolar disease, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many soldiers returning from tours of duty in Vietnam, the Middle East or other war zones suffer from PTSD. One example from One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest is one of Chief BromdenÃ¢â¬â¢s outbursts in Pa rt IV, Ã¢â¬Å"AIR RAID! Hit at a lope, running already down the slope. CanÃ¢â¬â¢t get back, canÃ¢â¬â¢t go ahead, look down the barrel anÃ¢â¬â¢ you dead dead dead.Ã¢â¬ (Kesey, 241) People suffering from PTSD have experienced or witnessed a traumatic or terrifying event, such as war, a mugging, rape, a car wreck or a natural disaster. Most people with PTSD have nightmares or flashbacks in which they relive the experience that caused the illness. This disorder, like many others, can be successfully treated with the rightShow MoreRelatedDissociative Identity Disorder And Social Anxiety1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPeople have had mental illnesses since the beginning of time. In this generation, the right look and the right actions are what everyone is looking for. Perfection is the aim, to Ã ¨fit in.Ã ¨ Though, when we see someone with a mental or physical illness, we automatically jump to the conclusion that those people are different and we canÃ¢â¬â¢t be seen with them for the sake of a simple reputation. People know that others who suffer from these illnesses are different, yet they donÃ¢â¬â¢t question what is happeningRead MoreWhat Is Psychiatrist?1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthem deal with a mental illness they do not have. The most common mental health issues psychiatrist misdiagnose are Bipolar Disorder, ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Bipolar disorder is a disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs. Over three million people are diagnosed in the United States every year. In those three million people Ã¢â¬Å"69 percent of patients with bipolar disorder are misdiagnosedRead MoreDocumentary Analysis: Depression: Out of the Shadows Essay869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages hidden depression, when the depression is hidden from others, postpartum depression, experienced after giving birth, and clinical depression, a continued depression lasting several weeks or more. The video also discusses the related illness called Bipolar disorder, which is characterized by extreme mood swings. The symptoms experienced with depression range in severity and vary with each diagnosis. Symptoms may include loss of memory, mood swings, and feelings of anguish, despair, guilt, isolationRead MoreMental Illness And Theodicy Arguments1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMental Illness and Theodicy Arguments Millions of Americans are affected with mental illness each year. Mental illness is very serious disorder and can get worse if left untreated. 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Many causes contribute to mental health problems, containing: Life experiencesRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Generalized Anxiety Disorder824 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Anxiety/OCD/PTSD Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder PTSD When it comes to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) though they differ in each diagnosis, they also can share a unique bond with each other. Both diagnoses can co-occur among patients. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-V), post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental health condition that s triggered by exposureRead MoreAnxiety Disorders Essay example1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe point where they bled and cracked? What if you had an anxiety disorder? Anxiety is the most common illness in the U.S., affecting 40 million adults over the age of 18; that counts for 18% of the U.S. population. However, 22.8% of those cases are counted as severe anxiety. There are several types of anxiety disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) involves excessive worrying, nervousness and tension. With this disorder, there is a constant feeling of dread that shapes your entire lifeRead MoreAbuse and Victimization in US Prisons639 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages local prisons and local county jails. Inlocal prisons 62% of the inmates have a mental illness (56.2 % in federal and 44.8 in local prisons)Most of the inmates could have prevented their stay if they were provided help for their illness , however they were not and they still have to serve their sentence. The inmates are abused daily by other inmates and even officers in charge.They cannot help they have an illness and its unfair they have to suffer a punishment worse than they already have.TheyRead MoreAnxiety Disorder And Anxiety Disorders1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages An anxiety problem can be developed through genetics, past life events, and personality. Anxiety can be broken down into six diffe rent branches: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder. People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often have increased anxiety over something that shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t create worry. Such as thinking about having to get through the day. This is a cycle that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowRead More Person Centered Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat because the theory lacks structure, it is not as effective in treating illness. However, it is one of the main theories utilized by therapists today. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is another popular theory that is used. It emphasizes the present and fixing cognitive distortions that clients may have. However, it too received some arguments against it, such as; treating symptoms and not the underlying cause of an illness. The theories that will be discussed are Carl RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of Person Centered
Examines the traits of Bathsheba in Thomas Hardys novel Far from the Madding Crowd and relates these with her relationships with the three men in her life. This paper analyzes Thomas Hardys character Bathsheba Everdene from the novel Far from the Madding Crowd. It focuses on her personality traits and how these traits attracted her to each of the three men in her life. It also analyzes these three men to a lesser degree, but only in relation to her. From the paper: In the Thomas Hardy novel Far from the Madding Crowd, the most interesting aspect of the book is most assuredly the interaction between Bathsheba Everdene and her three admirers. The plot was centered around those relationships, and there would not have been much of a storyline had those encounters been removed. It is therefore desirable to know as much as possible about what made these suitors attractive to Bathsheba, as it would provide great insight into her character as well as lead to a more complete understanding of the book. We will write a custom essay sample on Traits and Attraction or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page With a little analysis, it can be seen that the personality traits in Bathsheba that led to her attraction to Sergeant Troy, Farmer Boldwood, and Gabriel Oak, respectively, are her most primary and basic tendencies, and add much to her complexity.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Positivism Paper Positivism is a theoretical and methodological approach in contemporary criminology. Positivists believe that human behavior is shaped by biological, psychological or social factors and forces. These factors and forces are called individual pathology which deter the decision-making and control ability of an individual and results in behavioral problems (White Haines, 2003). To extend to legal definition, crime is defined as individual pathology to obey law and to conform to moral consensus of the society. Positivism approach in criminology examines the trait distinctions between offenders, rather than on the criminal acts as the focus of analysis. Also, positivism determines how these differences predispose a person towards criminality (White Haines, 2003). Positivists believed that these traits observed can be diagnosed and treated by dealing with and removing the factors and forces that cause the offending behavior to occur. Rather than punishment, positivism directs toward the treatment of offender as a response to crime (White Haines, 2003). The study of positivism is to classify and quantify human behaviors to uncover the causal relations between deviants traits and the committed crime. Therefore, positivism is a scientific approach in the criminal justice system. We will write a custom essay sample on Positivism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Positivism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Positivism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Psychological positivism Positivism concerning with psychological factors induced behavior is called psychological positivism. The consequences and impact of individual trauma are psychological factors which provoke behavior problems (White Haines, 2003). These psychological factors hinder the cognitive development in decision making, social understanding and moral reasoning. Thus, people with psychological problem are potential to commit in crime as they are unconscious in doing so (White Haines, 2003). Based on psychological positivism, criminals are associated with one of these psychological theories: psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive and physiological theory (Senna Siegel, 1990). The following will explain these theories by the case of man rape against woman. (a) Psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory was developed by Sigmund Freud (Senna Siegel, 1990). He believed that the personality arises from a conflict between three interacting systems: id, ego and superego (Senna Siegel, 1990). Id is unconscious energy that strives to satisfy instant gratification, it operates on the pleasure principle. Superego incorporates the moral norms of the society that how one ought to behave. Ego is conscious part of personality that satisfies the ids desires in ways that realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. It operates on the reality principle and struggles to reconcile the conflict between ego and superego. Psychoanalysts believe that law violators may suffer from personality disorder which is caused by damaged egos or superego (Senna Siegel, 1990). The personality disorder is self control inability which denoted that the capacity to repress urges is diminished. Criminals seek immediate gratification of wishes without consideration of right and wrong or the need s of others in the absence of self control. Humans are impulsive and anti-social in nature, they learn to aside to law through the system of self control. Low self control is consisted of incapability of defer gratification, lack of perseverance, and preference for risky and physical behavior (White Haines, 2003). To relate rape with self control theory, rape is seen as a gratification from sexual provocation. Mens sexual drive is aroused by womens dress, presence or movements. The drive is power and is so overwhelming to control (Vogelman, 1990). Men have no choice but to rape for a surge of excitement. As Groth and Birnbau (1979) argued, rape is not a symptom of mental illness but of personality dysfunction (cited in Hall, 1995: 74). Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) argued that child-rearing is critical to the development of self-control (cited in White Haines, 2003: 47). Family which lack of harmony, emotional warmth, and mutual acceptance promote the development of delinquency. Parents in these families treat the child aggressively or overly strict. Child abuse and neglect are also found in these families (Friedrich, 2003). Through such experiences, children learn aggressive behavior via modeling and perform similar reactions in the future. Warrne, Hazelwood and Reboussin (1991) reported that 76% rapists had experienced some sort of sexual abuse when they were children (cited in Hall, 1995: 75). These abuses include physical penetration or coercion to watch sexual act by assaults who were their family member or known assailants such as teacher, neighbor or friend (Hall, 1995). (b) Behavioral Theory Behavioral theory believes that behavior is determined. It is learned from others or through experiences. Human beings learn from daily observations (Senna Siegel, 1990). For example, youth exposed to aggressive, antisocial behavior on television and movies are likely to copy that violent behavior. Similarly, reading pornography laced with violence causes people to commit to rape. Laboratory researchers have claimed that media exposure on sexual aggression such as violence, degrade and humiliate against women encourage sexual offends (Howitt, 1998). It have been found that the majority of rapists to be of average or above average intelligence, educational level and income. However, they have inability to form or maintain emotionally intimate relationships with others (Hall, 1995). In fact, antisocial behavior can be induced by social disability such as deprivation or discrimination. Also, when people are unable to attain what they desire, they become frustrated and their potential for aggression is increased (Vogelman, 1990). Physical acts are often the quickest way to express anger or stress to diminish the inability and impairments (Conley, Luckasson Bouthilet, 1992). Groth and Hobson (1083) defined rape as a sexual expression of aggression against women (cited in Howitt, 1998: 91). This can be illustrated by anger rape. Anger rape involves physically force than necessary to overpower and damage the victim to obtain sex. Abusive, obscene and degrading languages are accompanied with anger rapist to express their hostility (How itt, 1998). This indicates that rape cannot be understood in terms of sexual desire alone. (c) Cognitive theory Cognitive theory focuses on how people process and store information. A child may do what is right simply to avoid punishment. The same person will do what is right to avoid hurting others in later life. This is called moral reasoning (Senna Siegel, 1990). Moral reasoning determines the perception one acquired. Perception dominates people behavior. Moral reasoning also endeavor one to obey law on behalf of their social responsibility and to identify the perspectives, feelings or thoughts of the others (Murphy Clare, 2003). Based on these theories, criminals are probably to have faulty perception and information processing as they are unable to think logically in the system of axiom. Axiom is the causal relationship of if and then, that is the impact of criminals behavior (Conley, Luckasson Bouthilet, 1992). Senna Siegel (1990) suggested that criminals are significantly lower in their moral judgment than non-criminals as they have limited insight into the motivations and character istics of others. They perceive other people as more aggressive than they are. Undoubtedly, they are more likely to be vigilant and suspicious. When criminals attack victims, they believe they were actually defending themselves (Senna Siegel, 1990). For male rapists, women are percept as sex objects and they believe that women are not worthy of respect since men are more competitive in the sphere of sexual relations. Rapists are unable to identify the equality between the two sex roles. The expression of mens masculinity is demonstrated in power rape. As Groth and Birnbaum (1979) stated, The intent of the power rapist is to assert his competency and validate his masculinity (as cited in Hall, 1995:76). Power rape is driven by fantasy. The power rapist projects his own desires on the victim, thereby interpreting her resistance as a facade of non-compliance. The rapists are exited by pain and suffering of the victim (Murphy Clare, 2003). The dehumanization of women reflects rapists inconsideration on others. The power rapists use language of instructional as to express conquest against women. (d) Physiological theory Physiological theory is the identification of the psychopathic personality (Senna Siegel, 1990). Psychopathic personality is caused by physical abnormality in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS mediates internal activities such as heart beat and blood pressure when associated with emotions. The physical abnormality can be caused by genetic and biochemical factors. Therefore, psychopathic personality is predisposed innately and is unaffected by socialization. Psychopath experiences lower arousal levels to stimuli and react differently from the normal. Therefore, it is possible that psychopaths are thrill seekers who engage in high-risk, antisocial activities to raise their general neurological level to a more optimal rate (Senna Siegel, 1990). Criminals are potential psychopaths who devoted in risky activities. As Freud developed, libidinal energy is internalized in particular zone of human, these zones are oral, anal, phallic and genital. These zones will evoke a feeling of pleasure when they are stimulated (Vogelman, 1990). Therefore, it is possible for men to have biological drive for sex. Moreover, As Gebbard, Gagnon, Pomeroy and Christenseon (1965) stated, In many mammals, coitus is preceded by a physical strugglethe physiological by-products of excitement and exertion is the increased heart rate, increased breathing, muscle tension, the greater supply of blood to the body surfaces, etc (cited in Vogelman, 1990: 39). Men rape not purely because of lust and lack of sex, but to facilitate sexual arousal. The arousal is obtained from the struggle of woman to produce a sense of excitement (Vogelman, 1990). Treatment As mentioned previously, the response of crime in positivism concentrates on treatment rather than punishment. Offenders who seem to have personality problems will undergo a psychological evaluation examined by forensic psychologists and psychiatrists (Senna Siegel, 1990). These professionals worked within the criminal justice system to assess the possibility of personality disorder. They also assert appropriate treatment to criminals according to their degree of deficiency. Treatment for rapists seeks to identify the causes of their deviant behavior, and to cure them by changing their thinking processing. Treatments for rapists include psychotherapy, behavior modification and biomedical therapy (Hall, 1995). There are three forms of psychotherapy: relapse prevention, cognitive therapy, and victim empathy. Relapse prevention is based on the belief that an event such as emotion and behavior are prior to rape, rapists are asked to identify the preceding events so that whenever the event appear they can consciously terminate their offensive behavior (Hall, 1995). Relapse prevention is the exercise of self control utilization. Cognitive therapy indoctrinates a moral perception to rapists that it is necessary to rationalize and justify their own offensive behavior (Hall, 1995). Victim empathy enables the rapists to empathize with his victims, thereby gaining recognition of the lasting impact of his action. In this therapy, rapist reenacts the rape from the perspective of a victim (Hall, 1995). A new moral reasoning system is constructed from this torture experience. Behavior modification is done by arousal control (Hall, 1995). It makes use of adverse conditions to control unacceptable behavior. For example, a rapist is assigned to be exposed to a scene which depicts a violent sexual encounter. If he is sexually aroused, he might receive a series of electrical shocks or might be subjected to an offensive odor (Hall, 1995). The purpose of the treatment is to cause the rapist to respond adversely to the thoughts of sexual violence. Thus, behavior is reformed. Biomedical therapy involves the use of drugs in conjunction with other forms of therapy. Drugs are used as a form of chemical castration that results in suppression of the manufacture of the sex hormones, testosterone. It may also use to suppress inappropriate fantasies and compulsive behavior (Hall, 1995). Offensive behavior can be removed. Psychological positivism as legal defense mechanism In criminal justice system, a voluntary act, the actus reus and a mental element, the mens reas are required to condemn someone to be guilty (Murphy Clare, 2003). The mental elements include the cognitive development and psychiatric conditions of the offenders. The cognitive development contributes to the ability to identify existing problems and formulate an effective way to solve the problems (Murphy Clare, 2003). If the development is interrupted, the offender is claimed to be no intention for their acts. Likely is the psychiatric illness sufferer. The criminal law recognizes these abnormal mental conditions of a person not to entirely responsible for their actions as intent for the commission of crime is negated (Senna Siegel, 1990). The mental state of unconscious is used as a legal defense mechanism. If a person is declared insane when they were committing crime, a judgment of not guilty by reason of insanity (cited in Senna Siegel, 1990) is entered. The person is then held in an institution for the criminally insane until found to be sane and eligible for release (Senna Siegel, 1990). Offenders can escape from punishment liked incarceration. Besides, involuntarily intoxication under duress or by mistake may also be an excuse to refute the crime committed. Even though voluntary intoxication can lessen the degree of crime because the defendant can prove they were lacking of critical element for mental intention (Senna Siegel, 1990). For example, a judgment may be decreased from first to second-degree murder. The defense mechanism in respect to psychological positivism is being criticized as it spurs crime as it releases criminal offenders. Criminal justice system is thus unjust. Conclusion The willingness of time and money consumption to investigate psychological positivism indicates that policymakers ascertain that personal trait is a contributing cause of criminality. Nevertheless, there are critiques in psychological positivism. Since positivism is a science, it is inaccessible to the general community. Power is centered in the hands of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists with their specialized knowledge (White Haines, 2003). Debate was also found on the efficacy of criminal profiling. Psychological positivism brings suspicious people into innocent criminals simply because they match certain personality traits (White Haines, 2003). In contrast, psychological positivism allows crime to be prevented by early intervention such as pre-school program to enforce discipline to children. Psychological positivism tends to construct a more harmonic society for the future.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Personal Bhag Essay Example Personal Bhag Essay Personal Bhag Essay My personal BHAG goal is to become a successful businesswoman. Since I was a little girl, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always thought about being a businessman just like my father who is my idol and hero. In my perspective, businessmen are the persons who push the society moving forward although in pursue of profits. Their wisdom, their capacity of organizing and coordinating things, and their insight to the market attract me and make me want to be a businessman. So after high school study, I choose to go to university for further study and major in Business Management. In order to achieve my goal, I have to learn fundamental business management theories and concepts. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the first step. Only with these essential theories and concepts, would I get to know how to run a business efficiently and profitably, and what is the best way to solve a practical problem. Besides learning basic business management knowledge, I need to improve my communication capacity as well. IÃ¢â¬â¢m poor at interpersonal communication which is one of my weaknesses. Todays leader needs to develop skills that motivate teams to excel. And communication is the basic and normally used skill to inspire and motivate employees. To be a good time-manager is also very important. Time-managing is the ability to arrange things properly and make everything organized. Most college students are bad at time-managing. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not good at arranging time as well. So things always happened like this. I hang out and have fun with friends during the daytime and do my homework at midnight. That would always result in bad grades. To be a good time manager is absolutely essential for a leader. A typical day for me should be well organized and efficient. I would get up at 7:00 am and take a quick shower which takes around 20 minutes. Then IÃ¢â¬â¢ll take some breakfast at around 7:30 am. A Healthy breakfast is a good start of a day. It can supply energy I need and make me invigorative. According to scientific research, morning time from 8:00am to 11:00am is the best period to study and memorize things. So IÃ¢â¬â¢ll take full use of that time to study and recite the knowledge IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to have a break after every an-hour study, relax myself and do some stretches. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s good my eyes and vertebrae. When itÃ¢â¬â¢s about time to take lunch, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go out with my friends and eat healthily. After lunch, I may take a nap which maybe last for an hour. The following 3 hours from 2:00pm to 5:00pm are my flexible time. Maybe IÃ¢â¬â¢ll take that time study or maybe hang out with friends, it all depends. After dinner, IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to go to the gym to do some exercise to keep fit. From 8:00pm to 9:00pm, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a good time to review and prepare for the lectures IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have on the next day. Then Go to bed before 10:00pm. That should be a typical weekend arrangement for me. In order to achieving my GHAG, I still have a long way to go. Maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢ll take 10 years, 15 years or even more, but IÃ¢â¬â¢ll always keep holding on to it and try to do the best I can.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Witchcraft in the 17th Century - Essay Example Many women owned property and operated farms and businesses in competition with their male neighbors. Disputes arose, especially after a husband died and left property to his widow.Ã¢â¬ (Wilson, 78) This period of history was marked by politico-religious turmoil too. The gender politics that began as a reaction to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s economic empowerment got mixed with bigotry. Hence, women were now much more likely than men to be accused of witchcraft and tortured that way. The events like the Salem Witch Trials (1692) manifested as an orgy of violence, mainly targeted against women. The policymakers were then frightened to witness the mass hysteria associated with the power of the Puritans. Hence, banning this practice became a legislative imperative. Hence an effort to make the politico-legal system of America more even-handed towards women began which continued even during the 19th century as has been pointed out by Gretchen. As shown in the film Ã¢â¬ËThe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢, in rel ation to the Salem Witch Trials, Nilan has pointed out, Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteen villagers were hung as witches, four died in prison and one was pressed to death.Ã¢â¬ This sort of superstitious terror inevitably led to policy reforms and prohibition. 2. Which one of the following do you think were the main two winners and which were the main two losers in EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s Glorious Revolution of 1689, and how and why did the Revolution lead to an expansion of the British ParliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of Salutary Neglect toward its American possessions? Parties involved: British Monarchy, British Parliament, Church of England, Protestant Dissenters, and Catholics. Answer: The Glorious Revolution of 1689 in England was an event of tremendous importance in the history of not only Europe but also America. The revolution although strengthened the Parliament and democracy, it also encouraged discrimination against Catholics. The main winners: 1. British Parliament: By inviting the William of Orange to invade England, the British Parliament ensured the partnership of the superior Dutch naval fleet. After deposing King James II, the Parliament now did not give much power to the new monarch William III (the William of Orange). Instead, it began to increase its power more and more as it levied maritime advantage by the merger of English and Dutch fleets. 2. Protestant Dissenters: Members from both the Tories and the Whigs united under the common umbrella of Protestant reaction against a possible Catholic Monarchy, and they ultimately established a parliamentary system that strongly favored the Protestants. In this way, Protestants prevailed. The main losers: 1. British Monarchy: Since King James II was deposed, not only the possibility of a Catholic dynasty was destroyed but also the very institution of the Monarchy itself began to decline rapidly under the pressure of the British Parliament. 2. Catholics: Protestants were the majority in the British Parliament after the events o f 1689. They eradicated the Catholics from the political system. Thousands of Catholics lost power and property in the subsequent decades.
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Case Study 9 - Essay Example In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"cultural sensitivity, cultural intelligence, and certain specific global leadership skills are essential for inspiring people from cultures other than ones ownÃ¢â¬ (DuBrin, 2013, p. 451). In the given example, the way Calvin interpreted the remark given by his team-leader in Great Britain demonstrates the low level of his cultural sensitivity. Actually, he tried to find the reason of low sales in lack of cooperation within his international team not in his managerial skills. Hence, the most important issue is that he tries to fix international challenges in American way. In order to provide the solution, above all it is necessary to mention that commitment is an essential part of each team. Therefore, each member of the company should easily recognize the general aim in order to stay motivated at the workplace. In a given example, the very idea of creating disaster insurance is referring to the universal value of security. Nevertheless, the company did not appropriately notice the difference in specific causes of insecurity. For instance, USA suffers from hurricanes, Japan is facing constant earthquakes, and Great Britain is not that preoccupied with natural but artificial anomalies. Consequently, the final product must be different for these countries to increase commitment of the international team. The advantages of this approach are evident in world experience. In this context, McDonalds company is the best example of effective management in international teams. It gives enough freedom to the local representatives to sale the goods in favor to local tastes. However, the potential disadvantage is that team can become so independent that it will not need American managers to be successful on the local market. In other words, it can be too late to change the interpersonal relations within the company. Thus, there are several methods to increase the effectiveness of the international
Friday, January 31, 2020
Gender communication - Essay Example (Payne, 2001) Thus drawing for a communication difference scenario between men and women, one comes to an understanding that the two communicate in quite varied ways. This is because it is an inherent feature of their make-up, the composition in which they have been made. While men tend to be open and blunt about their thoughts, actions and perceptions, women, on the other hand are more inclined to take it the soft way. This is because they perceive things pretty easily as compared to men who usually are hard and stubborn in their undertakings. Because of this men are known to be violent even within their communicative regimes while women are more sedate and sober when it comes to conversation and the like, all under the heading of communication. (Cody, 1995) Furthermore, men are known to be dominant over their clan while women are known to be subversive within their own rights Ã¢â¬â yet raising no qualms about their dealings and the ways in which they go about conducting themselves. It is a known fact that within the communicative aspects, men are open to defend their own selves in the wake of differing reactions, afterthoughts and attitudes while women, for the large part, remain confident of their own disposition by remaining quiet and diffident. This is not because they are afraid of coming out clean and clear as per the issue at hand but because they like to remain light on every aspect on which their attention is hailed as supreme right from the onset. It is difficult to make out what women usually would come up with in the case of extreme circumstances. They are easier to cry and weep while it is a well known fact that men usually do not cry unless special circumstances prevail upon their nature. The role of assertion within men is generally more as compared to women. Men feel more asserted as per their points of
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Growing Up Short story authors use symbolism to describe particular scenes without actually saying the words, which adds to the interest of the story. In Frank O'Connor's story "First Confession" and John Steinbeck's story "The Chrysanthemums", both authors use symbolism to enhance the readers insight of the story. Also, the symbolism offered by the authors provides the reader with a deeper look into the story, making the reader find more interest throughout. In "The Chrysanthemums", Steinbeck uses a betrayal issue as the basis of the story, where O'Connor's "First Confession" uses a religious basis. Even though there is a wide spread in the subjects, a link is created. Wisdom, spirituality, and frustration are all symbols shared by these unrelated topics. "The Chrysanthemums" main character is Elisa Allen. Elisa is married and loves to work in her garden. While working in the garden, a stranger pulls his wagon into Elisa's yard. The stranger manages to con Elisa by speaking of her flowers, which is Elisa's ultimate soft spot. Elisa gives the man some of her prize Chrysanthemums to give to another woman that he knew. While going to dinner with her husband, she notices her beautiful flowers have been carelessly discarded onto the road. This is one of Steinbeck's main symbols. The discarded flowers symbolize Elisa's beauty and femininity. Because Elisa has no children, she believes that her flowers are her children. She takes care of them better than anything she has in her possession does. When the smooth talking stranger disposes of her flowers, he has taken her children away from her. Elisa is also portrayed as venerable. The stranger takes advantage of this venerability by acting like he liked the flowers and was going to deliver t hem to a lady. The Chrysanthemums were Elisa's life and even her entire being on her isolated farm .Not only her trust was broken, but her faith in people and even herself was broken. She put her faith in the stranger and was betrayed. Elisa's garden was consistent with the Garden of Eden. Her flowers were cast out onto the road as God cast out Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve betrayed God, like the stranger betrayed Elisa's trust in him. In Frank O'Connor's "First Confession", a little seven year old boy named Jackie has been scared by a nun's portrayal of confession. Frightened by this inaccurate encounter, Jackie is nervous about making his first confession.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m a little shocked at t he numbers,Ã¢â¬ says Pamela Smock, a sociologist at the University of Michigan who has studied marriage and money. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s kind of against the notion of love and soul mates and the main motivations to marry in our culture.Ã¢â¬ (Frank, 2007). These shocking words that came out from a sociologist only suggests that in modern times, money should still be not the reason for marrying. It is a fact however that money is a big driving force for someone who wants to get married. At the back of their minds, there is the constant reminder of reality like divorce or annulment. However, they should also consider why they got into the relationship in the first place. Relationships are not built based on money. Moreover, one does not dwell into a relationship with the primary concern of money; whereas; it should have been the connection and the love that the partners share. Getting married is not like a hot potato that you can eat and spit out the moment that you discovered that it is too for you to handle. Marriage is a lifetime relationship and commitment; and this very same basis should be built on love, trust and respect. Ultimately, it should not be money because it devoid the vow that they made in front of the authority (may it be religiously or lawfully speaking). No matter how money plays a very important role in our society today, marriage should still be based on the wanting of both people to stay together for the rest of their lives. Additionally, since most of people these days are very agitated into climbing their way into the corporate world. People who want to settle down are the ones that have already made a niche in their fields. This only implies that they have everything they want or could ever want so the concept of money is the least on their priority. In addition, there are such things as pre-nuptial agreements which protect the assets of both parties. And people who sign to such agreements only want to protect their hard-earned money; so it is wrong to say that people want to marry for money. People who want to make money out of marriage are the ones who see it (marriage) as business or a way to get what they want. People who have mindsets like that are very superficial. Their concept of marriage very different from what it really is. Instead, they put a price tag to marriages. However, there are cases wherein people settle down more than once but it is enough to say that they married for money. Take for example Elizabeth Taylor who married five different guys. She is rich on her own that is why she married those guys because she wants to be committed with them for eternity. This only implies that once again, people who want to get married should want to do it because they want to spend the rest of their lives with that special someone. Since most people who want to get married are successful in their chosen field, that is the time that they want someone to spend their life with. Even though the person is really doing well, they cannot be considered truly successful unless they want to achieve real happiness. And marriage, in its purest form, is the only way to achieve that goal. Alongside the desire that you want to share your life with that special someone, the ultimate goal why someone should get married is the happiness that marriage can bring into your life. Marriage is about raising a family and that can give you an ultimate high that not even any achievement can bring. Money is a measure of how successful you are but a happy marriage is also another. Money come and go but family will not. Marrying because of money is a very superficial reason. Marriage is about a commitment of two people to become one which have the same mindset of achieving a happier state in life.Ã Marriage should be built on trust; respect and love because those really are the basic foundation of a successful future family which ultimately is one of the measurements of how successful you have become. References: Frank, R. (2007). Marrying for LoveÃ¢â¬ ¦of money [Electronic Version]. The Wall Street Journal.Retrieved January 16, 2008Ã from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119760031991928727.html. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
In Roman history, three men with the name Brutus stand out. The first Brutus spanned the change from monarchy to Republic. The other two were involved in the assassination of Julius Caesar. Which of these men was supposed to have been Caesars son? Is this also the Brutus who is called the most famous of the men in the Caesar assassination conspiracy? It is unlikely that Julius Caesar was the father of either of the men called Brutus who were involved in Caesars assassination conspiracy. The two men were: Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (c.85-43 B.C.) and Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42 B.C.). Marcus Brutus was also called Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus after his adoption. Who Was Decimus Brutus? Decimus Brutus was a remote cousin of Caesar. Ronald Syme* (20th-century classicist and author of The Roman Revolution and an authoritative biography of Sallust) believes Decimus Brutus was the one who might have been Caesars son. The mother of Decimus was Sempronia. Who Was Marcus Brutus? The mother of Marcus Brutus was Servilia, with whom Caesar had a long-term affair. Marcus Brutus divorced his wife Claudia in order to marry Caesars fierce opponent Catos daughter Porcia. Marcus Brutus convinced Decimus Brutus to join the conspiracy. Then Decimus Brutus persuaded Caesar to go to the Senate despite Caesars wife Calpurnias warnings. Decimus Brutus is supposed to have been the third to stab Caesar. Afterward, he was the first assassin to be killed. It is reported that when Caesar saw Marcus Brutus approach to stab him, he pulled his toga over his head. Other reports include a memorable last line, possibly in Greek or the one that Shakespeare uses, Et tu, Brute.... This is the Brutus attributed with the original of John Wilkes Booths famous Sic semper tyrannis So always to tyrants. Brutus may not have said it. Clearly, Marcus Brutus is the Brutus referred to as the most famous of Caesars assassins. Usually given as an objection to Caesars being the father of Marcus Brutus -- although it would be just as valid or irrelevant with Decimus -- Caesar would have had to sire his son at around the age of 14. *No Son for Caesar? by Ronald Syme. Historia: Zeitschrift fÃ ¼r Alte Geschichte, Vol. 29, No. 4 (4th Qtr., 1980), pp. 422-437